# sources of error in rc circuit lab

after doing some work with RC circuits, ive got results for the voltages, but on the third circuit, i used 2 resistors in parallel and instead of the voltage being lower than the theoretical like the others, it was higher can anyone help as to how and where i obtained this result (sources of error) many thanks in advance As shown in the figure below, the input voltage from the square-wave generator is monitored by channel one (CH 1) and the voltage across the capacitor is monitored by channel two (CH 2). 2. Construct the circuit shown in Figure 1 and measure I 1, I 2, I 3 and Vo. can store charge. Use PSpice to determine I 1, I 2, I 3, and Vo in Figure 1 at f = 1kHz and f = 10kHz. Notice that there are three sources of voltage in this picture. Those are the signal generator, the capacitor and the When you do source transformation, remember that the two circuits are equivalent only at the terminals of interest. following circuit. 3. 2.3 RC Circuit in the Frequency Domain In section 2.1 an RC circuit with only a discharging capacitor was examined. Typical circuit capacitors range from picofarads (1 pF = 10-12 F) to millifarads (1 mF = 10-3 F). In this limit my equation becomes: m m m 1 V V -V C =C I once again measure V and Vm using the oscilloscope. trendline equation, that is find the time constant RC and record these values in the appropriate Data Table. Setting Up the RC Circuit The RLC circuit board that you will be using consists of three resistors and two capacitors among other elements. 8. From this lab we know how to build a half wave rectifier circuit. The purpose was to study resonance in a series resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function of the frequency of the applied voltage. Notice that there are three sources of voltage in this picture. EE 233 Lab 1: RC Circuits Laboratory Manual Page 2 of 11 3 Prelab Exercises 3.1 The RC Response to a DC Input 3.1.1 Charging RC Circuit The differential equation for out( ) is the most fundamental equation describing the RC circuit, and it can be solved if the input signal in( … At time t=τ=RC (one time constant), the voltage across the capacitor has grown to a value: V t RC Vo e Vo e) 0.63Vo 1 ( = ) = (1− −1) = (1− = In this post we will take a comprehensive look at all of the factors that can lead to errors in a DC voltage measurement with a DMM and how to eliminate them so you can achieve the highest accuracy possible in your measurement. Calculate I 1, I 2, I 3 and Vo for the circuit shown in Figure 1 for f = 1kHz and f = 10kHz. The charging and discharging of a capacitor is the actual movement of electrons into and out of the capacitor. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1. RC Circuits . Measurement of the Time Constant in an RC Circuit. In this lab we will use microfarad capacitors (1 μF = 10-6 F). 27-9 RC Circuits In preceding sections we dealt only with circuits in which the currents did not vary with time.Here we begin a discussion of time-varying currents. A detailed time-table will be provided at your first laboratory meeting. rc circuits course: phy156 section: 12919 student name: gamoi paisley lab partner: sarahi marquez, emmanuela tanis date: 10/24/2017 objective: to examine the II. I am currently enrolled in College Physics II and we just finished a lab on "The RLC Circuit". Ideal and actual low pass filter response. I have done an experimeny to investigate how the voltage across a capacitor, Vc varies as it charges and to find the capacitive time constant in a DC RC circuits and Study resonance in an AC inductor-capacitor circuit (AC LRC circuit). stored energy to keep the circuit constant until it runs out of energy. First-Order Circuits: The Source-Free RC Circuits V 0 • Since the capacitor is initially charged, we can assume that at time t=0, the initial voltage is: • Then the energy stored: * Note: B = H is an approximation. In figure 1 we've sketched a series RC circuit. Due to the presence of a resistor in the ideal form of the circuit, an RC circuit will consume energy, akin to an RL circuit or RLC circuit . Circuits with Resistance and Capacitance. Repeat the experiment using the unknown capacitor. An RC circuit is composed of a resistor and a capacitor, while an RL circuit is composed of a resistor and an inductor. why did the charging and discharging rates differ with charging being so much faster? Those are the signal generator, the capacitor and the Now the same circuit with alternating current (AC) will be examined. IV.3 Data DC voltage source to measure R internal for scope. Notes: As in all the ALM labs we use the following terminology when referring to the connections to the M1000 connector and configuring the hardware. The RC circuit (Resistor Capacitor Circuit) will consist of a Capacitor and a Resistor connected either in series or parallel to a voltage or current source. YOU MUST COMPLETE ALL SIX LABORATORY UNITS IN ORDER TO PASS THIS COURSE. Verify your transformed circuit with other circuit analysis techniques derived from Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws, such as source transformation and voltage and current divider techniques. The objective of this Lab activity is to study the transient response of a series RC circuit and understand the time constant concept using pulse waveforms. (a) (b) Figure 2 (a) RC circuit (b) Circuit diagram for t > 0 Figure 8 shows a schematic for the circuit. While writing up your lab report, you will often have to mention various sources of errors that you encountered while doing your physics experiment that could’ve affected your final results. With the assumption that the measurement device for determining In practice, ... RL circuits with DC sources lab units of two weeks duration: waves, electrostatics, capacitors and dc circuits, magnetostatics, Faraday‟s law, and ac circuits. Capacitors and RC Circuits Name: Lab Partner: Section: 6.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the physics of capacitors in circuits. EE101: RC and RL Circuits (with DC sources) M. B. Patil mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in ... an inductor behaves like a short circuit in DC conditions as one would expect from a highly conducting coil. Next we’ll continue studying DC circuits. Procedure: Figure 1: Series - Parallel RLC Circuit 1. In order to satisfy this limit we must have : ω >> 1/RC = 2800 rad/sec. An RC circuit is a circuit containing resistance and capacitance. I therefore choose f= 100Khz. The curve of the exponential rise in voltage with time during the charging process is illustrated in Figure 2. RC Circuit An RC circuit is a circuit with a resistor and a capacitor in series connected to a voltage source such as a battery. In this lab experiment we will measure the time constant τ of an RC circuit via three different methods. See Fig. the resistance R of the circuit connecting the plates and by the capacitance C of the capacitor (a measure of its ability to hold charge). In the ORCAD, use VPULSE as the Vs and set V1=5V, V2=-5V, TD=0, … Charging a Capacitor The capacitor of capacitance C in Fig.27-15 is initially uncharged.To charge it,we close switch S on point a.This completes an RC series circuit consisting of the In this lab we will use microfarad capacitors (1 µF = 10-6 F). The value of the input and output voltages can be found from the circuit with the concept of complex impedance (Z). As with circuits made up only of resistors, electrical current can ﬂow in Now the same circuit with alternating current (AC) will be examined. A circuit with only one type of passive element that stores energy is called a first order circuit– or more specifically, in our case, an RC or RL circuit. Indeed, As presented in Capacitance, the capacitor is an electrical component that stores electric charge, storing energy in an electric field.. Max Power November 4, 2016 at 1:04 pm. The capacitor (initially uncharged) is connected to a voltage source of constant emf E. At t = 0, the switch S is closed. RC Circuits Consider the circuit shown in Figure 2. If you forget this, you can misinterpret the actual output value. For building we must choose a diode that can safely withstand the current the circuit will have to provide, and also the reverse bias voltage that will be applied to it. An RC circuit is defined as an electrical circuit composed of the passive circuit components of a resistor (R) and capacitor (C), driven by a voltage source or current source. the source. CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 1 DC Circuits – Measurement and Analysis 1.1 Introduction In today's high technology world, the electrical engineer is faced with the design and analysis of an increasingly wide variety of circuits and systems. 6 below. I haven’t done any chemistry in awhile as most of my work has been in testing electrical circuits, but boy if you could have seen some of my early lab reports tou might find them a tad humorous. Attendance at all laboratory sessions is required. PRE-LAB Do the ORCAD simulations of both RC and RL circuits, calculate time constants and plot the resulting waveforms across C (in the case of RC) and the waveform of the current in the case of RL. Figure 1 - Diagram of an RC Circuit When the switch is in position 1, the voltage source supplies a current to the resistor and the capacitor. You will measure the voltage across the capacitor as it charges and discharges. However, underlying all of these systems at a fundamental level is the operation of DC circuits. In the last unit you saw that in a series circuit with a battery, 1. the current is the same through all elements, 2. changing one part of a series circuit changes the current in all parts of the circuit, 3. the voltage divides between the elements of the series and You will need this sheet to record your data. In theory you can, therefore, … Diodes are rated for maximum average forward current, + - V C + - USB Voltmeter Please print the worksheet for this lab. The quantity τ=RC is called the time constant. ME Lab Report 0 50.3 0 1 Ideal Response EC R Circuit E 0 E E 1 Actual Response b b io o i E E o i Figure 1. An oscilloscope is an invaluable tool for testing electronic circuits by measuring voltages over time, and Figure 5 shows the schematic for monitoring an RC circuit with an oscilloscope. I measure C1 with the capacitance meter in the lab. Figure 8 shows a schematic for the circuit. These types of circuits are also called as RC filters or RC networks since they are most commonly used in filtering applications. Figure 2: An RC circuit with power supply showing a charged capacitor. EENG223: CIRCUIT THEORY I • A source-free RC circuit occurs when its dc source is suddenly disconnected. 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