Elephants are a well known, charismatic species and many people go to Africa each year on safaris to see elephants. Sally performed “seeking out” behaviors the least of all elephants (three interactions total, all toward a guide), potentially indicating that seeking out human interaction is not as necessary for the elephant with the strongest social position in the herd. Appl Anim Behav Sci (2006) 100:87–102. Human-directed behaviors such as approaching or seeking out can be related to how friendly a particular animal is (5). doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00010.x, 12. The use of positive reinforcement training techniques to enhance the care, management, and welfare of primates in the laboratory. Human-elephant conflict can take their toll both on human lives and property as well as elephant populations. Hart LA. Lee PC, Moss CJ. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. One potential explanation for this is that tourists are the only type of human who regularly bring bags out to the field. The most significant of these elephant–guide pairings were Mashudu with guide F, Shungu with guide E, and Thandi with guide H (see Figure 3). Infrasonic calls may travel long distances – even across the Atlantic Ocean from South America to Africa in the case of the blue whale! The elephants in the herd maintain strong intraspecific relationships; therefore, they have no evident need to fill any void left by lack of social contact with other elephants. Elephants have always moved over large distances, and arguably had some negative impact on the people they interact with. Appl Anim Ethol (1980) 6:257–76. If we offer food to a submissive elephant first, it could cause the dominant elephant to become aggressive. Anthrozoös (2000) 13(1):34–42. doi:10.2307/1938672. Animals and humans are different in few regards. In all of these analyses, the individual elephants and guides were treated as fixed effects, since the small sample sizes realistically preclude drawing conclusions about any larger population of elephants or humans. Appl Anim Behav Sci (1994) 40:297–312. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.05.012, 21. This graph adjusts for the amount of time each individual elephant was visible in the focal group. The elephants differed in the frequencies with which they initiated interactions with each category of human and in the types of behaviors they used to initiate interactions. How elephants communicate Like all highly social mammals elephants have a well-developed system of communication that makes use of all of their senses - hearing, smell, vision and touch - including an exceptional ability to detect vibrations. After this, the tourists (accompanied by guides) are allowed to walk with, touch, and take photos with the elephants. Topál J, Miklósi A, Csányi V, Dóka A. Attachment behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris): a new application of Ainsworth’s (1969) strange situation test. Human–animal bonds may foster a safer environment for both the human and animal involved in the bond. From their reactions to injured conspecifics (21) to their ability to recognize the calls of an estimated 100 other individuals (22), it is clear that interactions and relationships with conspecifics play an important role in the day-to-day life of the African elephant. AERU has conducted surveys on the guides’ opinions of the elephants, including guide preferences for specific elephants and information on elephant personality traits (28). sexual/hormonal, body condition, identity) and emotional state (e.g. However, certain elephants interacted preferentially with specific guides (χ662=102.56, p = 0.0026). Humans have a huge impact on elephants survival. Individual behavioral variations in response to the presence of a stranger, more specifically exploratory behavior versus fearful behavior, have been demonstrated by house cats (14) and deer (15). “There is still a certain element of control required for elephants to be in close contact with humans, whether it’s rides or elephant bathing,” says Kenyon. As a group, the elephants interacted preferentially with some guides over others (p < 0.0001). doi:10.1093/ilar.43.1.33, 10. These studies also discuss how recognizing an individual elephant’s unique set of characteristics can help direct management practices that cater to an elephant’s particular needs. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(94)90070-1, 18. Seeking out behaviors accounted for 20% of all behaviors toward guides, compared to volunteers (11%) and tourists (2%). Since “seeking” behaviors seem to indicate a higher level of commitment from the elephant initiating the interaction, these elephants may be less committed to interacting with tourists. Final interaction counts were adjusted for how long each elephant was visible in the focal group (i.e., the members of Sally’s herd within viewing distance). 40. The frequency of “seeking” behaviors exhibited by Shungu and Thato toward volunteers could support the aforementioned “safe haven” hypothesis. Featured on "QI" and having been a topic of debate for a while at Frontier London HQ, we thought it was about time to fully look into it. Data were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) (27) and chi-squared tests for tests of independence between particular categorical variables. Laule GE, Bloomsmith MA, Schapiro SJ. 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